Monday, January 23, 2012

How to do Texture Mapping in OpenGL?? – A sample example.

Texture mapping is the process of applying colors from an image to an object created in OpenGL. A simple example would be, applying a brick image onto a square which makes the square look like an original wall.
OpenGL supports four basic texture map types. 1D, 2D, 3D and cube map textures. The following code is an example of a 2D texture mapping, which provides a basic usage of textures.
Note: To run this code on your machine, make a bitmap image (64 x 64) and name it floor.bmp . Keep this image in the same folder where your exe file is located. If you are Code::Blocks user, then compiling from IDE results in Error, it says that it couldn’t found the Image. So just compile it and run the exe  file which is  inside debug or release folder. Visual Studio user can directly run this program without even including <windows.h> but Code::Blocks user must include <windows.h>.

Source Code:
#include <windows.h> //for Code::Blocks user
#include <GL/glut.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gl\gl.h>
#include <gl\glu.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
GLuint texture[2];

struct Image {
    unsigned long sizeX;
    unsigned long sizeY;
    char *data;
};
typedef struct Image Image;

#define checkImageWidth 64
#define checkImageHeight 64

GLubyte checkImage[checkImageWidth][checkImageHeight][3];
void makeCheckImage(void){
    int i, j, c;
    for (i = 0; i < checkImageWidth; i++) {
        for (j = 0; j < checkImageHeight; j++) {
            c = ((((i&0x8)==0)^((j&0x8)==0)))*255;
            checkImage[i][j][0] = (GLubyte) c;
            checkImage[i][j][1] = (GLubyte) c;
            checkImage[i][j][2] = (GLubyte) c;
        }
    }
}


int ImageLoad(char *filename, Image *image) {
    FILE *file;
    unsigned long size; // size of the image in bytes.
    unsigned long i; // standard counter.
    unsigned short int planes; // number of planes in image (must be 1)
    unsigned short int bpp; // number of bits per pixel (must be 24)
    char temp; // temporary color storage for bgr-rgb conversion.
    // make sure the file is there.
    if ((file = fopen(filename, "rb"))==NULL){
        printf("File Not Found : %s\n",filename);
        return 0;
    }
    // seek through the bmp header, up to the width/height:
    fseek(file, 18, SEEK_CUR);
    // read the width
    if ((i = fread(&image->sizeX, 4, 1, file)) != 1) {
        printf("Error reading width from %s.\n", filename);
        return 0;
    }
    //printf("Width of %s: %lu\n", filename, image->sizeX);
    // read the height
    if ((i = fread(&image->sizeY, 4, 1, file)) != 1) {
        printf("Error reading height from %s.\n", filename);
        return 0;
    }
    //printf("Height of %s: %lu\n", filename, image->sizeY);
    // calculate the size (assuming 24 bits or 3 bytes per pixel).
    size = image->sizeX * image->sizeY * 3;
    // read the planes
    if ((fread(&planes, 2, 1, file)) != 1) {
        printf("Error reading planes from %s.\n", filename);
        return 0;
    }
    if (planes != 1) {
        printf("Planes from %s is not 1: %u\n", filename, planes);
        return 0;
    }
    // read the bitsperpixel
    if ((i = fread(&bpp, 2, 1, file)) != 1) {
        printf("Error reading bpp from %s.\n", filename);
        return 0;
    }
    if (bpp != 24) {
        printf("Bpp from %s is not 24: %u\n", filename, bpp);
        return 0;
    }
    // seek past the rest of the bitmap header.
    fseek(file, 24, SEEK_CUR);
    // read the data.
    image->data = (char *) malloc(size);
    if (image->data == NULL) {
        printf("Error allocating memory for color-corrected image data");
        return 0;
    }
    if ((i = fread(image->data, size, 1, file)) != 1) {
        printf("Error reading image data from %s.\n", filename);
        return 0;
    }
    for (i=0;i<size;i+=3) { // reverse all of the colors. (bgr -> rgb)
        temp = image->data[i];
        image->data[i] = image->data[i+2];
        image->data[i+2] = temp;
    }
    // we're done.
    return 1;
}

Image * loadTexture(){
    Image *image1;
    // allocate space for texture
    image1 = (Image *) malloc(sizeof(Image));
    if (image1 == NULL) {
        printf("Error allocating space for image");
        exit(0);
    }
    if (!ImageLoad("floor.bmp", image1)) {
        exit(1);
    }
    return image1;
}


void myinit(void)
{
    glClearColor (0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.0);
    glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
    glDepthFunc(GL_LESS);
    Image *image1 = loadTexture();
    if(image1 == NULL){
        printf("Image was not returned from loadTexture\n");
        exit(0);
    }
    makeCheckImage();
    glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1);
    // Create Texture
    glGenTextures(2, texture);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); //scale linearly when image bigger than texture
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); //scale linearly when image smalled than texture
    glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, image1->sizeX, image1->sizeY, 0,
    GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, image1->data);
    glTexEnvf(GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEXTURE_ENV_MODE, GL_DECAL);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]);
    glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP);
    glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP);
    glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexEnvf(GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEXTURE_ENV_MODE, GL_DECAL);
    glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, checkImageWidth,
    checkImageHeight, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE,&checkImage[0][0][0]);
    glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    glShadeModel(GL_FLAT);
}


void display(void){
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]);
    glutSolidTeapot(1.0);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]);
    glBegin(GL_QUADS);
    glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(1.0, -1.0, 0.0);
    glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(1.0, 1.0, 0.0);
    glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(2.41421, 1.0, -1.41421);
    glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(2.41421, -1.0, -1.41421);
    glEnd();
    glutSwapBuffers();
}

void myReshape(int w, int h){
    glViewport(0, 0, w, h);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluPerspective(60.0, 1.0*(GLfloat)w/(GLfloat)h, 1.0, 30.0);
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, -3.6);
}

void keyboard (unsigned char key, int x, int y){
    switch (key) {
        case 27: // “esc” on keyboard
        exit(0);
        break;
        default: // “a” on keyboard
        break;
    }
}

int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    glutInit(&argc, argv);
    glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DEPTH);
    glutCreateWindow("Texture Mapping - Programming Techniques");
    myinit();
    glutReshapeFunc (myReshape);
    glutDisplayFunc(display);
    glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard);
    glutMainLoop();
    return 0;
}


Output

TetureMappingInOpenGL

3 comments:

  1. what if I only have access to gl.h and not glu.h and glut.h?

    ReplyDelete
  2. It is giving me this error:
    Planes from floor.bmp is not 1: 1028

    ReplyDelete